# How to Design an Algorithm to Solve a Traveling Salesman Problem

When you’re designing an algorithm that can solve a travelling salesman problem, you should keep a few things in mind. These include how the travel time will affect the problem’s solution, and how the algorithm should handle the solution’s distribution over time.

## Time complexity is less than O(n!) but still exponential

The Traveling Salesman Problem is a popular NP problem in combinatorial optimization. It asks the user to find the shortest route from one city to another. This task has a complex mathematical structure that requires the user to calculate a Hamiltonian cycle.

There are many different types of algorithms that can be used to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem. These range from the classical to the heuristic. Some of these algorithms have been found to work in polynomial time, while others are still running in exponential time.

The best known algorithm for the Travelling Salesman problem is the Bellman-Held-Karp algorithm. This algorithm is one of the earliest applications of dynamic programming.

In general, the best classical algorithm is a backtracking technique that searches depth first for an unknown structure. However, the best classical algorithm is not the fastest. Similarly, the best quantum algorithm is not the fastest.

A more sophisticated heuristic algorithm can be found in the form of the Christofides algorithm. This algorithm uses the O*(2n) time application of dynamic programming to solve the Traveling Salesman problem. Moreover, the Christofides algorithm is more efficient than the brute force method and also works in a bigger TSP situation.

Other more advanced algorithms such as the Exclusion-Inclusion are designed to achieve a higher runtime. For example, this algorithm uses a modified distance matrix to process a larger TSP scenario. Although these algorithms are still in development, they have the potential to solve the Traveling Salesman problem in a fraction of the time that it would take to implement the Christofides algorithm.

The best classical algorithm for the Traveling Salesman problem is probably the O*(2n) time application. But, in practice, this is not the case.

As an example, the best classical algorithm is a bit faster than the best quantum algorithm. Another good option is to use a branch-and-bound algorithm. Branch-and-bound algorithms are known to be effective for processing problems with more than 40 cities. Also, they are much faster than the greedy Next-Nearest-Neighbor (NNN) algorithm.

Unfortunately, the Traveling Salesman problem is not known to have a fast solution. But, there are other creative ways to solve the problem.

## Variable-opt methods

The travelling salesman problem is a type of combinatorial optimization problem. It is used in various fields such as operations research and theoretical computer science. In this problem, a salesman has to find a route between a set of cities. He cannot purchase the same product in each city, and must choose the shortest path.

A heuristic algorithm called the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is used to solve this problem. It tries to find a shortest tour that takes each city only once.

This algorithm is based on the simple idea of deleting a few edges from the tour. It works fast and can be easily implemented. However, the result is not always optimal. For example, if the starting city has no disjoint edges, the perimeter is not the best solution.

Variable-opt methods for the traveling salesman problem use an iterative approach to remove subtours. These methods are also known as greedy algorithms.

Compared to exact solutions, the costs of computations increase as the size of the problem increases. When the number of edge crossings is large, it may be difficult to find a path that is not at least a little longer. Nevertheless, local optimizations can make the solution shorter without crossings.

Two popular variable-opt methods are the 2-opt and k-opt techniques. They both work well in good-enough cases. But they must be modified for multi-objective TSP.

In the 2-opt technique, two edges are deleted from the tour. The results are then reconnected in a different way. Each operation reduces the total tour length. Once a tour becomes shorter, the second objective is achieved.

Unlike the 2-opt method, the k-opt technique deletes all edges that are mutually disjoint. This simplifies the TSP problem. After a tour is shorter, a new tour is created. As an added benefit, the k-opt technique can be applied to a constrained 2k-city TSP.

The three-opt method is the most common k-opt technique. It is introduced by Shen Lin of Bell Labs in 1965. Although it has a special case when the edges are not disjoint, it can achieve a good improvement over the 2-opt method.

## Biogeography-based optimization algorithm

A Biogeography-based optimization algorithm is an optimization algorithm that aims to use mathematical models of biogeography to solve problems. Biogeography is the study of the geographic distribution of animals and organisms over a period of time. The BBO algorithm is inspired by this research. It is also based on a concept of animal migration.

In the paper, a biogeography-based optimization algorithm for traveling salesman problem is introduced. This algorithm is used to solve the travelling salesman problem, a classic optimization problem that can be used to assess the performance of an optimization technique.

The Biogeography-based optimization algorithm tries to explore combinatorially large solution spaces. Since the function values may change dramatically, the algorithm is not good at dealing with regions where the function values are changing quickly. But, it has been shown to be effective in the classical TSP problem.

To improve the performance of the BBO algorithm, a new special migration operator is introduced. This operator produces solutions that are more suitable to the fitness function. Moreover, it is a hybrid migration operator that combines the migration operator of the BBO algorithm with a differential evolution (DE) operation.

In the BBO algorithm, immigration rate (m) and emigration rate (l) are used to share information between candidate habitats. This operator also helps to overcome stagnation at local optima.

The BBO algorithm is not good at solving non-convex economic dispatch problems. However, this is not a complete problem. An alternative solution is to use a genetic algorithm.

BBO algorithms have been applied to various real-world optimization problems. They have been shown to be effective in various benchmark functions.

One of the advantages of the BBO algorithm is its low number of parameters. Another benefit is that it does not make assumptions about the problem. Hence, it has a high degree of efficiency in solving optimization problems.

In addition to the original Biogeography-based Optimization algorithm, a novel algorithm called Momentum-based Biogeography-based Optimization algorithm (Momentum-BBO) is proposed. This algorithm combines momentum and taxonomic mutation to improve the performance of the algorithm.

It is not surprising that there has been considerable interest in the development of novel optimization algorithms. Various works have been conducted on this topic, which have given new insights and perspectives for further research.

## Branch-and-bound method

The Branch and Bound method is an algorithm designed to solve traveling salesman problems. It is based on the 1-tree Lagrangian relaxation.

This method works by exploring subsets of the solution set and checking the branch against the upper and lower bounds on the optimal solution. If the branch fails to produce a better solution, it is eliminated.

Travelling Salesman Problem is a difficult mathematical problem. It requires the salesman to visit a number of towns and return to the starting city. To achieve this, the salesman needs to travel the shortest possible route.

There are only finite numbers of solutions. Therefore, no single algorithm can give the solution in polynomial time.

It is one of the oldest computational problems in computer science. However, there are many applications for it. For example, in routing, it can be used to find the best route for gas distribution. In printing circuit boards, it can be used to maximize drilling holes.

The algorithm for determining the optimal solution to travelling salesman problems can be applied to symmetric and asymmetric problems. One of the first algorithms for the travelling salesman problem was developed by Ailsa Land and Alison Doig in 1960.

The algorithm used in this paper uses a recursive process to generate a binary decision tree. Using the tree, the branch and bound method determines the lowest binding point for the objective function.

The first step of the branch and bound method is to split the solution set into smaller branches. Each branch consists of a number of solutions. These solutions are marked with a weight. The weighting indicates which routes were travelled.

During this process, the total cost of the delivery is minimized. For instance, the optimum route for a travelling salesman is 1 – 5 – 3 – 4 – 2 – 1.

The branch and bound method is a powerful way to find a more efficient solution. It is also effective for problems where the number of addresses is limited. Compared to the brute force method, the branch and bound method does not require much computation.